Roman Vacations: Leisure and Pleasure in Ancient Times

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How Ancient Romans Spent Their Holidays.

The Roman Empire, which spanned from Western Europe to parts of Asia and Africa, is renowned for its military, architectural, and political milestones. Yet, an often overlooked facet of Roman culture is their pioneering role in recreational travel. This phenomenon was not merely a byproduct of their expansive dominion, but an intentional pursuit of leisure and pleasure.

Travel in ancient times was typically associated with trade, diplomacy, or military campaigns. However, for Romans, especially among the affluent classes, traveling also served as a means of relaxation and cultural enrichment. The extensive and efficient network of Roman roads, known as “viae”, facilitated such journeys. These roads connected diverse regions, enabling relatively swift and safe travel.

As the empire experienced periods of peace and prosperity, particularly during the Pax Romana, the urban elite increasingly sought respite from city life. They began frequenting destinations known for their therapeutic springs, scenic beauty, and cultural festivities. This inclination towards travel for pleasure and relaxation, as opposed to mere necessity, laid the groundwork for what would later evolve into modern tourism practices.

A coign of vantage by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1895
A coign of vantage by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1895, source

The Dual Nature of Roman Life: Negotium and Otium

In the socio-cultural fabric of ancient Rome, life was largely structured around two opposing yet complementary concepts: ‘negotium‘ and ‘otium‘. ‘Negotium’ referred to the realm of business, daily chores, and public duties, encapsulating the hustle and obligations that defined the life of an average Roman citizen. Public spaces such as the thermae (bathhouses) were not mere recreational spots; they served as bustling hubs where individuals not only focused on personal hygiene but also engaged in networking, struck business deals, and discussed politics.

Contrastingly, ‘otium’ embodied the idea of leisure, relaxation, and withdrawal from the relentless demands of public life. It was a period of respite, introspection, and, for many, a pursuit of personal interests ranging from literature to art. The significance of ‘otium’ can be discerned from the fact that many of Rome’s literary and philosophical works were conceived during these moments of leisure.

For the affluent and elite of Roman society, the pressures of ‘negotium’ were particularly pronounced. Their societal status demanded continuous engagement in public and political affairs, making the allure of ‘otium’ even more enticing. This dichotomy between work and leisure led to a burgeoning desire among the elite to seek escape, often in the form of vacations or retreats to tranquil locations away from the cacophony of urban centers. These getaways became emblematic of their aspiration to strike a balance between the incessant demands of ‘negotium’ and the tranquil allure of ‘otium’.

Popular Vacation Destinations

The Gulf of Naples

Situated in the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, the Gulf of Naples was held in high esteem during the Roman era. Its unique juxtaposition of pristine beaches, temperate climate, and panoramic views of the Tyrrhenian Sea made it a sought-after locale for the Roman aristocracy.

Ercolano, Stabia, Oplontis, and Pompeii: These towns, nestled in the embrace of the Gulf, were more than just scenic retreats; they were bastions of luxury and architectural prowess. Their ruins today provide evidence of the grandeur with which the Romans built their vacation homes. Streets lined with ornate villas, intricately designed mosaics, and advanced urban planning marked these locales.

Gaius Sergius Orata: Emerging as one of the most visionary entrepreneurs of his time, Orata recognized the tourism potential of this region. Under his initiative, sprawling villas that showcased Roman opulence were constructed. These estates often boasted private bathhouses, expansive libraries, gardens with water features, and panoramic views of the sea. Catering to senators, wealthy merchants, and other members of the Roman elite, Orata’s ventures redefined luxury living in antiquity.

Submerged remnants of Baia, an ancient Roman city, showcase preserved villas, spas, and mosaics, all testament to its past glory, hidden due to the effects of bradyseism over the ages


Nestled in the Campi Flegrei region, Baia (Baiae in Latin) was a magnet for those seeking both relaxation and hedonistic pleasure. The town was not just geographically advantageous, being a coastal settlement with therapeutic hot springs, but it also evolved into a cultural hub, attracting artists, poets, and thinkers.

Epicenter of Leisure and Revelry: Baia was synonymous with lavish parties, extravagant feasts, and theatrical performances. Its reputation was further enhanced by structures such as the Temple of Venus and the presence of opulent bath complexes, which were believed to have healing properties. The town’s popularity can be gauged from its frequent mentions in contemporary literary and historical texts.

Thinkers and Their Musings: While Baia’s beauty was universally acknowledged, its culture of excess did not escape criticism. Cicero’s writings offer a lens into the lives of the Roman elite who frequented Baia. In his works, he alludes to the extravagances of individuals like Clodia, drawing attention to the town’s reputation as a haven for debauchery. Similarly, the philosopher Seneca lamented the moral degradation associated with Baia. He famously critiqued its residents and visitors for indulging in unrestrained pleasure, often contrasting its hedonism with the virtues of a stoic life.

Baia, over the centuries, has been submerged due to the phenomenon of bradyseism. This underwater city now preserves the remains of domus and villas, spas, mosaics, and extraordinary evidence of its past. These ruins provide a glimpse into the luxury and culture of ancient Rome, making Baia a significant underwater archaeological site. Many visitors and divers are drawn to its unique history and the incredible structures preserved beneath the water’s surface.

Submerged remnants of Baia, an ancient Roman city, showcase preserved villas, spas, and mosaics, all testament to its past glory, hidden due to the effects of bradyseism over the ages
Baia, source

Despite the critiques, Baia’s allure was undeniable. Its legacy as a place of leisure, pleasure, and at times, excess, makes it an integral chapter in the tale of Roman vacations.

Leisure Activities and Roman Vacation Pastimes

In their quest for relaxation and diversion from the routine affairs of state and society, ancient Romans pursued a diverse range of leisure activities during their vacations. These pursuits reflect both their appreciation for the aesthetic and the corporeal, embracing activities that stimulated the mind, body, and senses.

Activities and Pursuits

Contemplative Meditation: A revered practice, especially among the intellectuals and the elite, contemplative meditation allowed individuals to retreat into their thoughts, often in the tranquility of nature. These moments of reflection were essential in an empire where political and societal decisions often carried heavy consequences.

Literary Engagements: Engrossing reads, from poetry to philosophical treatises, occupied a significant portion of their leisure time. Libraries within villas provided a rich collection of scrolls, allowing visitors to immerse themselves in the knowledge and stories of their time.

Scenic Boat Trips and Nature Walks: The Roman elite, with their villas strategically positioned near water bodies, frequently indulged in boat trips. These journeys provided an opportunity to admire the landscapes, and when on foot, nature walks among gardens and forests were common, allowing them to connect with the environment.

Massages and Therapeutic Treatments: Roman bathhouses, or thermae, were not just about hygiene. They were also centers of relaxation, where massages using aromatic oils and other therapeutic treatments rejuvenated the body and mind.

Horseback Riding and Hunting: Equestrian activities held a special place in Roman culture. Horseback riding offered a blend of thrill and leisure, while hunting, often seen as a testament to one’s skill and valor, was a favored sport among the aristocracy.


Evening Festivities

As the sun set, Roman vacations transitioned into elaborate nocturnal celebrations. Grand feasts were organized, where delicacies from across the empire graced the tables. The meals were often paired with performances.

Music and Dance: Musicians played various instruments, from the aulos (a wind instrument) to the lyre, creating a harmonious atmosphere. Dancers, both professional troupes and impromptu performances by guests, added to the evening’s vibrancy.

Circus Displays: Beyond traditional performances, certain villas and estates even hosted mini circus displays, mimicking the grandeur of the Circus Maximus. These shows involved acrobats, jugglers, and sometimes exotic animals, adding to the spectacle.

Showcase of Wealth and Prominence: These events were not just about leisure; they were also about asserting one’s status in society. The grandiosity of the feasts, the quality of the performers, and even the guest list were reflective of a host’s social and economic standing.

Romans and Seaside Activities

The ancient Romans, known for their advanced urban infrastructure and appreciation for various forms of leisure, also cherished the coastlines of their vast empire. Historical records and archaeological findings suggest that Romans frequented coastal areas, not just for trading or military campaigns, but also for recreational purposes. While the elite often possessed seaside villas where they could retreat and enjoy the maritime ambiance, common Romans also visited public beaches. Beaches along the Italian coastline, especially near cities like Ostia and Naples, were popular spots. Activities weren’t limited to just bathing; it’s believed that Romans enjoyed wading, swimming, and perhaps even rudimentary forms of beach games. Literary accounts, like those from Pliny the Younger, occasionally referenced the joy of seaside relaxation, affirming the Roman appreciation for the sea as a venue of leisure and recreation.

Historical Accounts

Cicero and Pliny the Younger, two prolific writers of their era, have left behind detailed descriptions of Roman leisure practices. Cicero’s letters shed light on the intellectual pursuits and the value Romans placed on meditation and reflection. On the other hand, Pliny’s letters, especially those describing his villa in the Laurentine Shore, provide a more holistic view, from literary engagements to the evening feasts, capturing the essence of Roman vacation culture.

The Scandalous and the Respectable: Social Implications of Roman Vacations

The Roman Empire’s vacation spots, while centers of relaxation, were also arenas of social dynamics. Among these, Baia stood out, not just for its breathtaking beauty but also for the myriad tales of both indulgence and infamy associated with it. The line between leisure and licentiousness was often blurred, leading to complex societal implications.

Pleasant Hours in the House of Lucullus, Boulanger Gustave

Baia’s Dual Image

Pinnacle of Leisure: For many Romans, Baia was a symbol of opulence. Its lavish villas, thermal baths, and serene waterscapes painted a picture of idyllic retreat. The affluent classes saw it as a testament to their success, a place where they could enjoy the finer things in life away from the urban hustle of Rome.

Hub of Vice: On the flip side, whispers of scandalous activities were rampant. Stories of extravagant parties that transgressed societal norms, of affairs that breached the boundaries of propriety, and of decisions influenced by the intoxication of both wine and hedonism, cast a shadow on Baia’s reputation.

Cicero’s ‘Pro Caelio’ and the Tale of Clodia

The notoriety of Baia’s debauchery was so renowned in its time that Cicero leveraged it to paint a vivid picture of the excesses indulged in by Clodia, the wife of the consul Quinto Cecilio Metello Celere. Clodia, known for her liaisons with prominent Roman figures, including the poet Catullus, became the subject of Cicero’s pointed remarks. In his notable public address, “Pro Celio,” which was a defense of Marco Celio Rufo, Cicero not only defended his friend from accusations brought forth by Clodia but also seized the opportunity to criticize her libertine behavior. With sharp irony, he highlighted her indulgence in city escapades and stays at villas, her regular visits to Baia, and her lack of decorum on beaches, boat trips, and lavish feasts.

Philosophical Warnings

Seneca, and other philosophers of the time, often pointed to places like Baia when discussing the moral pitfalls of unbridled leisure. Seneca, in particular, cautioned against the allure of such destinations, emphasizing the necessity of moderation even in relaxation. His writings hinted at a larger societal concern: the challenge Romans faced in balancing their desire for leisure with the need to maintain a respectable image in society.

Societal Balancing Act

For the Romans, vacations were not just a break from routine; they were also a reflection of one’s standing in society. The choice of destination, the company kept, and even the activities indulged in were under scrutiny. In such a backdrop, places like Baia posed a conundrum. While they offered unmatched luxury, they also carried the risk of tarnishing one’s reputation. This dichotomy made Roman vacations a nuanced affair, where the pursuit of pleasure often danced on the edge of propriety.

Featured image: A kiss by Lawrence Alma Tadema (1891), source

Topics: Roman elite holiday spots, ancient Roman pastimes, Cicero’s portrayal of Baia, Seneca’s philosophical takes on Roman vacations, Gulf of Naples as ancient vacation hub

Last Updated on 2023/10/02


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