Roman Numerals: Origin, Facts and Usage with Images

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Exploring the Fascinating History and Modern Use of Roman Numerals: From their Ancient Origins to their Role in Modern-Day Design

The Roman numeral system is a numbering system that was used by the ancient Romans and has been adapted for use in modern times. Throughout the Roman Empire, people utilized this system of numbers. Even in modern times, they are still employed, but mostly for scientific or decorative purposes, such as chapter numbers in books and on clock faces, to designate variants of models in technology, natural satellites in astronomy, groups of the periodic table in chemistry, and so on.

Related articles: Chinese numbers and symbols



  • 112 = CXII
  • 296 = CCXCVI
  • 512 = DXII
  • 815 = DCCCXV
  • 1,066 = MLXVI
  • 1,776 = MDCCLXXVI
  • 1,945 = MCMXLV
  • 2,023 = MMXXIII

Forms that deviate in some manner from the overarching pattern are available.


The exact origin of the Roman numeral system is unclear, but it is believed to have evolved from the Etruscan numeral system, which was used by the Etruscan civilization that predated the Roman Empire. The Etruscan system was itself likely influenced by the Greek numeral system, which used the letters of the Greek alphabet to represent numbers.

The Roman numeral system, particularly the symbols I, V, X, L, and C, originated from the Etruscan number symbols: ⟨⟩ for 1, ⟨⟩ for 5, ⟨⟩ for 10, ⟨⟩ for 50, and ⟨⟩ for 100. Like the basic Roman system, the Etruscans wrote numbers by including symbols for each value, starting with the highest. For example, the number 76 would be written as in Etruscan, which appears as when written from right to left.

Early Roman numeral system

The Roman numeral system was first used by the ancient Romans in the 4th century BC. It was originally used to represent numbers in the context of trade and commerce, but it eventually became the standard way of representing numbers in all aspects of Roman life.

The Roman numeral symbols for 1, 10, and 100 were originally adopted from the Etruscan numerals: ⟨⟩, ⟨⟩, and ⟨⟩. The symbols for 5 and 50 changed at some point to ⟨V⟩ and ⟨ↆ⟩. The latter symbol was later flattened to an inverted T ⟨⊥⟩ during the reign of Augustus, and eventually became identified with the similar looking letter ⟨L⟩. The symbol for 100 was written either as ⟨⟩ or ⟨ↃIC⟩, and was then abbreviated to ⟨Ↄ⟩ or ⟨C⟩, with ⟨C⟩ (which matched the Latin letter C) eventually becoming the standard. This may have been influenced by the fact that C is the initial letter for the Latin word “centum” meaning “hundred”. The symbols for 500 and 1000 were created by adding a box or circle to the V or X. For example, 500 was represented by a Ↄ superimposed on a Þ. This symbol eventually evolved into the letter D or Ð during the reign of Augustus, due to its graphical similarity to the letter D. Another symbol for 1000 was the CIↃ, with the symbol for 500 being the right half of this symbol, IↃ. This symbol may have been simplified into the letter D as well.

  Thousands Hundreds Tens Units
1 M C X I
4   CD XL IV
5   D L V
6   DC LX VI
9   CM XC IX
Individual decimal places

Classical Roman numeral system

Roman numerals had already taken on their classical form by the time of the Roman Empire, as they are now generally standardized. The classical Roman numeral system is based on seven symbols: I, V, X, L, C, D, and M. These symbols represent the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, respectively. To create larger numbers, these symbols are combined and placed in order of value, with the largest value being placed first. For example, the number 53 would be written as LIII (50 + 3) and the number 449 would be written as CDXLIX (400 + 40 + 9).

Basic symbols of Roman numerals and suffixes for multiples

Rules of the Roman numerals

There are a few rules that must be followed when using Roman numerals.

First, a symbol can only be repeated up to three times in a row. For example, the number 4 is written as IV (5 – 1), not IIII. Second, when a smaller value is placed before a larger value, it is subtracted from the larger value. For example, the number 9 is written as IX (10 – 1). Finally, when a smaller value is placed after a larger value, it is added to the larger value. For example, the number 6 is written as VI (5 + 1). Roman numerals were the accepted method of writing numbers throughout Europe for centuries. Various modifications to the system were created to represent bigger numbers, but none of them were ever standardized.

Basic symbols

  • Ⅰ = 1
  • V = 5
  • X = 10
  • L = 50
  • C = 100
  • D = 500
  • M = 1 000

Suffixes for multiples

By bordering a letter with two vertical lines at its sides and a horizontal line above it, its original value is multiplied by one hundred thousand. The ancient Romans did not have a specific word for either millions or billions and their maximum numerical lexical expression was the thousands. For example, 1,000,000 was referred to as “one thousand thousand”.


The Roman numeral system includes the fraction S to represent 1/2. This symbol can be seen in ancient inscriptions, such as VIIS to indicate 3 1/2. Instead of using a base 10 system for fractions, the Romans used a base 12 system. The symbol for 1/12 is called “Uncia” or “unciae”, which is the Latin word for “ounce”.

Later use

By the 11th century, Arabic traders and arithmetic treatises had brought Arabic numbers from al-Andalus into Europe. Roman numerals, on the other hand, were very resilient, continuing to be widely used in the West far into the 14th and 15th centuries, even in accounting and other business documents (where the actual calculations would have been made using an abacus). Roman numerals were gradually replaced by their more practical “Arabic” equivalents, yet they are still used in some situations today.

Roman numerals have been used for centuries, and they continue to be used today in certain contexts. However, they have largely been replaced by the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, which is a more efficient and practical way of representing numbers.

Despite this, Roman numerals still have a certain charm and historical significance. They can be seen on the faces of clocks, in the names of monarchs and popes, and on the covers of books. They are a reminder of the long and rich history of the Roman Empire and its influence on the world.


The Etruscan civilization: History, Facts and Art


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