The Most Important Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Rome

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A comprehensive list of more than 300 Roman gods, deities, and supernatural beings.

Ancient Roman deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in the ancient Roman Empire. The Roman pantheon consisted mainly of deities of ancient Italic origin who, as a result of the influence of other peoples, were assimilated with foreign, especially Greek, deities. Roman deities were imagined with human likenesses and life habits similar to that of humans, whose personal histories very often intertwined with their own, not only in love affairs but also in warfare. The deities had superhuman qualities and powers but reflected the characteristics of the people. They quarreled frequently and were jealous of each other.

Related article: Demons, Monsters, and Ghosts of the Italian Folklore

The most widely known deities were those that the Romans identified with their Greek counterparts, integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, art, religious life, and literature. In any case, most of the many Roman gods remain obscure. Only the name and function of many archaic gods are known through inscriptions or text fragments. Most of them date back to the era of kings, the “religion of Numa”, which was perpetuated or revitalized over the centuries.

Roman imperial cult identified emperors, some members of their families, and the Empire, with the divinely sanctioned authority (auctoritas) of the Roman State, and we will address this topic in another article.

The twelve most important gods and goddesses are represented by pictures sitting on couches as though they were there and taking part in banquets, called lectisternium. Varro refers to twelve gods with gilded pictures that were present in the forum as Dii Consentes (sometimes seen as the Roman equivalent of the Greek Olympians). These were similarly arranged into six pairs of men and women arranged by Augustan historian Livy in gender-balanced pairs:

JupiterJuno
NeptuneMinerva
MarsVenus
ApolloDiana
VulcanVesta
MercuryCeres

A flamen was an ancient Roman priest who served one of the 18 gods that had official cults under the Roman Republic. The three flamines maiores (or “great priests”), who served the significant Roman deities Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus, were the most significant of them. The flamines minores made up the remaining twelve (“lesser priests”).

Below we provide a list of more than 300 Roman deities with descriptions, images, facts and myths.

Apollo, Neptune, Pluto, and Athena
Apollo, Neptune, Pluto, and Athena seated on a cloud under an arch, an oval composition, from a series of eight compositions after Francesco Primaticcio s designs for the ceiling of the Ulysses Gallery (destroyed 1738-39) at Fontainebleau, ca. 1560–69 (source)

A

Abundantia

In ancient Roman religion, Abundantia, sometimes known as Abundita or Copia, was a celestial personification of abundance and prosperity.

Abeona and Adeona

Abeona guards departures, such as children leaving their parents’ homes for the first time or taking their first steps. Adeona is the patroness of the return of children to their parent’s homes.

Acca Larentia

Acca Larentia was a fertility goddess. She raised and later adopted Romulus, the founder of Rome.

Acis

Acis was the god of the river Acis which flows through Etna.

Aequitas

Aequitas served as a divine personification in the Roman Empire and was a part of the emperor’s religious propaganda.

Aeracura (Erecura), Cura

Ancient cultures revered the goddess Erecura, often spelled Aerecura, who is commonly portrayed as descended from the Celts.

Aeternitas

Aeternitas was the divine personification of eternity.

Affricus

Africus or Africus is the god of the southwest wind. He is equivalent to the Greek Lips.

Aeon, Aion

The Hellenistic deity Aion (Aeon in Latin) is linked to time, the sphere or circle that surrounds the world, and the zodiac.

Agathodaimon

Ancient Greek gods known as Agathodaimon were supernatural or individual companion spirits, like the Roman genii, who gave luck, fertility, health, protection, and knowledge.

Agenoria

Agenoria was a Roman goddess of action (actus).

Aius Locutius

Aius Locutius or Aius Loquens was a Roman god or numen connected to the early 4th-century BC Gallic assaults of Rome.

Alemona

Archaic birth and childhood deity. Alemona nourishes the embryo or generally nourishes its growth in utero.

Alernus, Helernus

Archaic Roman deity Helernus, or Alernus, was a minor underworld deity, and a sacred grove near TIber River.

Altor

Altor is invoked with Rusor by the pontiffs in a sacrifice to the earth deities Tellus and Tellumo.

Angerona

Angerona served as Rome’s protector goddess and guardian of the city’s holy name.

Angita

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Angitia

Angitia was revered as a deity by the Oscan-Umbrian tribes of central Italy, including the Marsi, Paeligni, and others.

Anna Perenna

An ancient Roman goddess named Anna Perenna oversaw the passage of time or, more precisely, the year’s eternal renewal.

Annona

In contrast to the goddess Abundantia, who ruled over several seasons, Annona is the goddess of supply and abundance.

Antevorta, Porrima

Antevorta is the goddess of the future and, opposing Postvorta, presides over the birth of children when they are in the cephalic position.

Apollo [Di selecti]

Apollo is, in Greek and Roman religion, the god of music, medical arts, science, intellect, the sun and prophecy.

Aquilo

Aquilo is the god of the north-northeast wind.

Aprus

The Roman goddess of gardens, Aprus, was in charge of overseeing the blossoming of flower corollas.

Asclepius, Aesculapius

In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Asclepius is a hero and a god of medicine and a son of Apollo. He was associated with Imhotep, an Egyptian god, and the Roman/Etruscan god Vejovis.

Arimanius

Arimanius is ta mysterious deity thought to be the opposite of Oromazes, the god of light, and is mentioned in five Latin inscriptions and a few Greek literary writings.

Artemis

Greek mythology describes Artemis as the goddess of archery, untamed creatures, the forest, and female initiations as well as the moon and the protector of virginity and modesty. Her Roman equivalent is Diana.

Attis

Cybele’s husband in Greek and Phrygian mythology was Attis. The origin myths of Attis’s self-castration claim that his priests were eunuchs or Galli.

Aura

Aura is a breeze-related minor god from Greek and Roman mythology.

Aurora

In Roman mythology, Aurora is the goddess of the sunrise.

Austerulnotus

Austerulnotus is the god of the south wind.

Averruncus

Averruncus is a deity of protection in the religion of ancient Rome.

B

Bacchus (Dionysus)

Bacchus, is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking, orchards and fruit, greenery, fertility, insanity, ceremonial lunacy, religious ecstasy, celebration, and theater.

Bellona

Bellona is an ancient Roman goddess of war.

Bona Dea

Bona Dea was a deity linked to Roman women’s virginity and fertility, healing, and the nation’s and people’s safety.

Bonus Eventus

The god Bonus Eventus, or “Good Outcome,” was revered in early Roman religion.

Bubona

Bubona, who is believed to have been a goddess of cattle in ancient Roman mythology, is only mentioned by Saint Augustine.

C

Caca

Caca is the giantess sister of Cacus, the son of Vulcan who stole cattle from Hercules during the course of his western labors.

Cacus

Cacus is a fire-breathing giant and the son of Vulcan in Roman mythology.

Caelus (Uranus)

A primary sky deity in Roman mythology, theology, iconography, and literature, Caelus was the roman counterpart of Uranus.

Camenae

The Camenae were once four deities associated with prophecy, wells, springs, and childbearing in Roman mythology: Carmenta, Egeria, Antevorta, and Postvorta.

Candelifera

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Cardea

Cardea or Carda was the ancient Roman goddess of the hinge. She was originally the nymph Carna.

Carmenta [Minor flamens]

Carmenta, also known as Nicostrata, is one of the Camenae goddesses and a member of the Di indigetes in Roman religion.

Carna

The nymph Carna lived close to the Tiber river in an old grove named Alerno.

Catillus

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Catius pater

Children’s minds are said to be sharpened by “Father Catius” as they grow cognitively.

Ceres [Minor flamens] [Di selecti]

Ceres was a goddess of agriculture, grain harvests, fertility, and maternal ties.

Cinxia

Archaic minor Roman deity of the marriage bed (di coniugales).

Circius

Circius is the god of the north-northwest wind.

Clementia

Clementia was the goddess of mercy, forgiveness, and redemption in Roman mythology.

Cloacina

The Cloaca Maxima, or “Greatest Drain,” was controlled by the goddess Cloacina. It was the major interceptor discharge outfall of the Roman sewage system.

Concordia

Concordia, a goddess in pre-Christian Roman mythology, represents harmony in marriage and society.

Conditor

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who stores the grain”.

Consus

The deity Consus was the guardian of grains and a grain seed served as his representation.

Convector (Conuector)

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who carries the grain”

Copia

Copia is a Roman deity who personifies abundance. She was identified by the Romans with the goat Amalthea who suckled Zeus with her own milk.

Corus or Caurus

Caurus or Corus is an old Roman wind-deity and he is the god of the wind of northwest. Caurus is equivalent to the Greek Skiron. Argestes is probably another name for him.

Cuba

Archaic minor Roman deity. Cuba keeps the child quiet in his cot.

Cunina

Cunina is an archaic birth and childhood deity. She protects the cradle from malevolent magic.

Cupid

Cupid is the god of desire, erotic love, affection, and attraction.

Cura

Cura was the one who gave birth to the first person.

Cybele

In Rome, Cybele was given the name Magna Mater (“Great Mother”).

D

Dea Dia

Dea Dia was a fertility and growth goddess in the ancient Roman pantheon.

Dea Tacita

In Roman mythology, Dea Tacita, often known as “the quiet goddess,” was a goddess of the dead.

Decima

Decima was one of the three Parcae. She was in charge of birth along with Nona.

Devera

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Deverra

One of the three gods that guarded midwives and women giving birth was Deverra.

Destiny, Fate

Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate, is a predetermined course of events. It may be conceived as a predetermined future, whether in general or of an individual.

Diana [Sabine god] [Di selecti]

Diana is the deity of the forests, keeper of wild animals, guardian of springs and streams, protector of women, to whom she ensured painless births, and dispenser of sovereignty.

Diana Nemorensis

“Diana of the Wood,” was an italiac goddess confused with Artemis in the fourth century BC.

Di indigetes

The “indigenous gods” of early Roman religion.

Di Selecti

The twenty principal gods of Roman religion.

Dii Consentes

The Dii Consentes, is an ancient list of twelve major deities, six gods, and six goddesses, in the pantheon of Ancient Rome according to the poet Ennius: Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus; Mars, Mercurius, Iovis, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo.

Di Inferi

Di Inferi, the gods below, was the name used by the Romans to refer to the gods of the underworld

Di Nixi, Nixi, Nixae

In ancient Roman religion, the di nixi (or dii nixi), also Nixae, were birth deities. They were depicted kneeling or squatting, a more common birthing position in antiquity than in the modern era. The Nixi or Nixae may have also been connected to new life in the sense of theological rebirth or salvation due to their role as keepers of the threshold of life.

Di Penates

The Di Penates or Penates were the household deities most commonly invoked in domestic ceremonies.

Dies

Dies (“day”) was the personification of day.

Disciplina

She is the personification of discipline.

Discordia

Discordia is the goddess of strife and discord.

Dīs Pater, Rex Infernus

Dīs Pater, also known as Rex Infernus is a Roman god of the underworld

Disciplina

In ancient Roman religion, a minor goddess known as Disciplina represented discipline.

Dius Fidus

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Domiduca

Archaic minor Roman deity. On their walk back to their parents’ house, children are protected by the goddess Domiduca.

Domitius, Domiducus

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Duellona

Archaic minor Roman deity.

E

Edusa

Edusa is an archaic birth and childhood deity.

Egeria

Egeria is one of the ancient Latin goddesses of spring waters, the Camenas, in Roman mythology.

Egestes

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Empanda, Panda

Empanda was the goddess of the rustics or possibly an epithet of Juno.

Endovelicus

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Ephirus

Ephirus is the god of the west wind.

Epona

Epona was the goddess of horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules in the Gallo-Roman pantheon.

Euroauster

Euroauster is the god of the south-southeast wind.

Euronotus

Euronotus is the god of the south-southwest wind.

Eurus

Eurus is the god of the southeast wind.

Evander

The Lupercalia celebration was started by Evander, who was the son of the deity Mercury and the nymph Carmenta.

F

Fabulinus

Archaic birth and childhood deity. Fabulinus. It was believed that Fabulinus taught kids how to talk.

Falacer [Minor flamens]

Falacer was an ancient Italic deity.

Fascinus

In Roman mythology, the phallic deity Fascinus offered protection from the evil eye and invidia (envy).

Ferentina

The protector of Ferentinum in Latium.

Fama

Fama was the personification of fame and renown, her favour being notability, her wrath being scandalous rumours.

Farinus

Farinus is an archaic birth and childhood deity. Farinus enables speech.

Fauna, Fatua

The Roman goddess Fauna is either Faunus’ wife, sister, or daughter.

Faunus

Faunus was the horned deity of the woods, plains, and fields in ancient Roman mythology and myth.

Faustitas

Faustitas was the goddess protecting the herd and livestock. She reportedly accompanied Ceres as they traversed farmlands to ensure their fruitfulness.

Febris

Febris was a deity who personified and protected against malaria and fever.

Februus

In pre-Christian Roman religion, the god of purification was called Februus, whose name means “purifier.”

Fecunditas

Fecunditas which means “fertility” in Latin, was the goddess of fertility. She was shown as a matron, sometimes with children in her arms or standing next to her, perhaps carrying a hasta pura or a cornucopia.

Felicitas

Felicitas was a deity of abundance, and success and presided over good fortune.

Ferentina

Patroness of Ferentinum in Latium.

Feronia [Sabine god]

Goddess of fertility, plenty, health, and wildlife.

Fides [Sabine god]

Fides was the goddess of faith (bona fides) and trust.

Flora [Sabine god] [Minor flamens]

Flora, a Roman goddess of flowers and the springtime, is a representation of nature and flowers.

Fluonia or Fluvionia

Archaic birth and childhood deity. Fluonia or Fluvionia, from fluo, fluere, “to flow,” is a form of Juno, who controls the nourishing blood of the womb.

Fons or Fontus [Sabine god]

Fontus or Fons was a god of wells and springs.

Fornax

Fornax, the heavenly personification of the oven, was a revered figure in ancient Roman religion.

Fortuna [Sabine god]

She was the goddess of fortune and the personification of luck.

Fufluns

Fufluns was a deity of all plant life, joy, wine, health, and development in all things in the religion of the Etruscans.

Fulgora

Fulgora was the feminine representation of lightning. She was Astrape’s Roman equivalent.

Furrina [Minor flamens]

Furrina was a goddess of springs.

G

Genius [Di selecti]

The genius is a particular manifestation of a universal divine essence that permeates each and every person, location, and object.

Gratiae, Charites, Graces

The Gratiae are the goddesses of nature and vegetation, beauty, human creativity, goodwill.

H

Harpocrates

In Ptolemaic Alexandria, the god of silence, secrecy, and confidentiality was known as Harpocrates.

Hecate, Trivia

Hecate or Hekate was the goddess of magic and crossroads and was the powerful lady of darkness, reigning over evil demons, the night, the moon, ghosts, and the dead in Greek mythology and religion.

Helius, Helios

Helios is the god and personification of the Sun in ancient Greek mythology. Helios is often given the epithets Hyperion (“the one above”) and Phaethon (“the shining”).

Hercules

The Roman version of the Greek celestial hero Heracles, son of Jupiter and the human Alcmene, is Hercules.

Hermaphroditus

Hermaphroditus was the mythological son of Aphrodite and Hermes.

Honos

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Hora, Hersilia

Hersilia was a character in the founding myth of Rome in Roman mythology.

Hostilina

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Goddess who makes grain grow evenly.

I

Imporcitor

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who ploughs with a wide furrow”

Indiges

The deified hero Aeneas is known as Jupiter Indiges, according to Roman historian Livy.

Indigimenta

The twelve Ceres’ helper gods.

Insitor

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who plants seeds”

Intercidona

Archaic birth and childhood deity. Intercidona provides the axe without which trees cannot be cut (intercidere).

Invidia

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Inuus

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Iustitia (Lady Justice)

Iustitia was a deity in Roman mythology personifying Justice.

Iuturna

Juturna was the goddess of springs, wells, and fountains.

J

Jana

Jana, is regarded in Roman Mythology as the wife of Janus and confused with Diana. Some times she symbolizes the female aspect of the god seen as an androgynous being.

Janus [Di selecti]

In ancient Roman mythology and myth, Janus is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, entrances, passageways, frames, and ends.

Jugatinus

Jugatinus is a conjugal god, from iugare, “to join, unite and marry”.

Juno [Di selecti]

Juno, the wife of Jupiter, was the ancient deity of marriage and childbirth, often depicted in the act of nursing.

Jupiter [Major flamens] [Di selecti]

Jupiter is the deity of the sky and thunder as well as the monarch of the gods.

Juventas, Iuventus, Juventus

Juventas was in charge of youth and rebirth. She was particularly revered by young men who were “fresh to wearing the toga” (dea novorum togatorum), or those who had recently reached adulthood.

L

Lactans or Lacturnus

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Archaic minor Roman deity. He was the god who infuses crops with “milk” (sap or juice).

Lares [Sabine god]

Lares served as protective deities. They may have been guardians of the hearth, fields, boundaries or fruitfulness.

Larunda [Sabine god]

Larunda was a naiad nymph, daughter of the river Almo.

Latona, Leto

Latona, or Leto, was the mother of Apollo and Artemis.

Laverna

Laverna was the protector of thieves and impostors and associated with the underworld.

Lemures

Lemures—”night spirits,” are the spirits of the dead; they are viewed as vampires—souls that cannot find rest due to their violent deaths.

Levana

Levana is a birth and childhood deity. She was the goddess who oversaw the lifting of the child by the midwife immediately after birth  in symbolic contact with Mother Earth.

Liber Pater [Di selecti]

Liber or Liber Pater was the Italic god of fertility, wine, male fertility and freedom.

Libera

Libera was the female counterpart of Liber Pater in early Roman religion.

Liberalitas

Archaic minor Roman deity.  Goddess or personification of generosity.

Libertas

Libertas was a deity of ancient Rome who personified Liberty.

Libitina

Libitina was an ancient Roman funeral and burial goddess .

Lima

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Locutius

Archaic birth and childhood deity. Locutius enables children to form sentences.

Lua

Roman soldiers would sacrifice confiscated weapons to the goddess Lua.

Lucina [Sabine god]

Lucina is a goddess of Roman mythology of Etruscan origin. She was the goddess of childbirth and safeguarded women in labor. She introduces the baby to the light (lux, lucis).

Lucifer

The planet Venus was known as Lucifer (“light-bringer”), albeit it was sometimes portrayed as a man holding a torch.

Luna [Sabine god] [Di selecti]

Luna was the personification of the moon.

Lupercus

Lupercus guarded the harvest, farmers, and herds of wild animals.

Lympha

The Lympha is an ancient Roman deity of fresh water similar to the nymphs.

M

Maia

Maia is an ancient goddess of fertility and the awakening of nature in spring in Roman mythology.

Mana Genita

Mana Genita is an archaic goddess that is only referenced by Pliny, Plutarch, and Horace.

Manes

The Manes or Di Manes are chthonic deities in ancient Roman religion who are often supposed to symbolize the spirits of departed loved ones.

Mars [Major flamens] [Di selecti]

Mars is the god of war and, according to the most archaic mythology, also of thunder, rain, and fertility.

Mater Larum, Mother of the Lares, Mania

She is referred to by Ovid as Tacita, Muta, and Lara (the silent one). Later Roman authors adopted the word to refer to a “evil spirit” in general.

Mater Matuta

The Romans equated the native Latin deity Mater Matuta with the Greek goddess Eos and the dawn goddess Aurora.

Matres

Matres and Matronae were worshipped in Northwestern Europe between the first and fifth centuries AD.

Meditrina

Meditrina was a goddess invented to account for the origin of the festival Meditrinalia.

Mefitis

Mefitis was a minor goddess of the deadly gases released from the earth in marshes and volcanic vapors in Roman mythology.

Mellona

Archaic minor Roman deity.

Mena

Mena in Roman mythology is the name of the goddess of fertility and menstruation.

Mens

Archaic birth and childhood deity. Mens (“Mind”) provides children with intelligence.

Messia

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). The female equivalent of Messor the reaper, and associated with Tutelina.

Messor

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who reaps”

Mercury [Di selecti]

Mercury was considered the protector of commerce, travelers, thieves, eloquence, athletics, transformations of all kinds, speed, dexterity, and pharmacy.

Minerva [Sabine god] [Di selecti]

Minerva is the goddess of wisdom, justice, and the law. She is also the patroness of the arts, business, and strategy.

Mithras

Roman mystery religion Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries or the Cult of Mithras, was based on the god Mithras.

Molae

daughters of Mars, probable goddesses of of the mill.

Moneta

The term “Moneta” was used to refer to two different goddesses: Juno Moneta and the goddess of memory.

Mors

Mors is the personification of death.

Morta

Morta was one of the three Parcae. Morta was in charge of supervising death.

Murcia

Murcia was an ancient and obscure Roman deity.

Mutunus Tutunus, Mutinus Titinus

Mutinus Titinus was a phallic marriage deity.

N

Naenia Dea

Naenia Dea was an ancient funeral deity of Rome.

Nascio

Natio was a goddess of birth, and a protector of women in labor.

Necessitas

Romanized Ananke, the goddess of destiny.

Nemesis, Rhamnousia

Nemesis is the goddess who enacts retribution against those who succumb to hubris, arrogance before the gods.

Neptune [Di selecti]

Neptune is the god of freshwaters and sea.

Nerio

Nerio (or Neriene) was a war goddess and the embodiment of bravery in ancient Roman religion and myth.

Neverita

The goddess Neverita was paired with Consus and Neptune in Martianus Capella’s Etrusco-Roman horoscope.

Noduterensis 

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Noduterensis or Terensis is the god of threshing.

Nodutus

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). He is god who causes the “knot” (Latin nodus) or node to form.

Nona

Nona was one of the three Parcae. Nona was meant to calculate a person’s lifetime and was in charge of birth along with Decima.

Nortia, Nurtia

Nurtia, or Nortia in Latin, was an Etruscan goddess of time, fate, destiny, and chance.

Novensilus

The nine major gods of Etruscan mythology were known as Novensilus in Roman mythology.

Nox, Nyx, The Night

Now is a Roman Goddess, personification of the night, equivalent to the Greek deity Nyx.

Numeria

Numeria is an archaic birth and childhood deity. She gives the child the ability to count.

Nundina

Nundina is an archaic birth and childhood deity. She presides over the dies lustricus.

O

Obarator

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who traces the first ploughing”.

Occator

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who harrows”.

Ops, Opi [Sabine god]

Ops is a Roman archaic fertility deity that represents the earth and distributes agricultural plenty of Sabine origin.

Orbona

Orbona, the goddess of childbirth in Roman mythology, was the one who bestowed childbirth onto parents who had grown barren. She was also the patron goddess of children, particularly orphans.

Orcus [Di selecti]

Orcus was a deity of the underworld who punished people for breaking pledges.

Ossipago

Ossipago is an archaic birth and childhood deity.

P

Palatua [Minor flamens]

Palatua was the protector of the Palatine Hill.

Pales [Sabine god]

Pales was a shepherd, flock, and livestock deity in the religion of the ancient Romans.

Parcae (Partula, Moirae, Fates)

The three Parcae (Decima, Nona, Morta) were the feminine personifications of fate who oversaw the lives and deaths of both mortals and gods in ancient Roman religion and myth.

Patelana

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Patelana, who may be alluding to the appearance of the flag leaf, is the goddess who opens up (pateo, patere) the grain.

Paventia

Paventia or Paventina is an archaic birth and childhood deity. She averts fear (pavor) from the child.

Pax

Pax was the goddess of the Peace.

Peta

Archaic birth and childhood deity.

Philotes

Philotes was the personification of love and passion in Greek mythology and Night’s daughter.

Picumnus

Pilumnus is an archaic birth and childhood deity.

Pietas

The celestial personification Pietas represented the pietas, one of the most important qualities among the ancient Romans, which may be translated as “loyalty,” “devotion,” or “filial piety.”

Picus

Picus was the son of Saturn and the founder of the first Latin tribe and settlement, Laurentum, near Rome.

Pilumnus

Pilumnus is an archaic birth and childhood deity.

Pluto, Plouton

Greek Plouton is a word for the deity who rules the hereafter that was made famous by mystery religions and Greek philosophy. It is occasionally used in Latin literature and is frequently confused with Dis pater or Orcus.

Pomona [Minor flamens]

Pomona was a goddess of abundant fruit in the mythology of ancient Rome.

Portunus [Minor flamens]

Portunus was an ancient god of locks, gates, animals, and ports.

Porus

Porus is the personification of abundance. He is the maternal half-brother of Athena.

Postvorta, Postverta

Postvorta was one of the two Carmentes and the goddess of the past in Roman mythology along with her sister Antevorta.

Potina

Potina (Potica or Potua) is an archaic birth and childhood deity. She enables the child to drink.

Prema

Prema is an archaic Roman goddess and is the insistent sexual act.

Priapus

Priapus is the subject of the often humorously obscene collection of verses called the Priapeia in Roman erotic art.

Promitor

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who distributes the grain”

Proserpina

Proserpina was the queen of the underworld, daughter of Ceres and Pluto.

Providentia

Providentia is a celestial personification of the capacity for foresee and make provision in the religion of ancient Rome.

Pudicitia

The Roman goddess Pudicitia represented the virtue which may be translated as “modesty” or “sexual virtue,” a central idea in ancient Roman sexual ethics.

Puta

According to Arnobius, Puta was a minor goddess of agriculture and oversaw tree trimming in Roman mythology.

Q

Querquetulanae

The Querquetulanae were nymphs of the oak grove (querquetum) at a stage of producing green growth.

Quirinus [Sabine god] [Major flamens]

Quirinus is an archaic Roman state deity in mythology and religion.

Quiritis

Quiritis was the Sabine goddess of motherhood.

R

Rederator

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). He prepared fallow land for crops.

Reparator

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who prepares the earth”.

Robigus, Robigo, Robigine

Robigus is the Roman god of stem rust.

Roma

Roma is a goddess in the Roman religion who personified the city of Rome and, more generally, the Roman state.

Romulus

The founder and the first king of Rome.

Rumina

Rumina is an archaic birth and childhood deity. The goddess of the breastfeeding.

Runcina

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Runcina is the weeder goddess, or a goddess of mowing.

Rusina

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Goddess of the fields.

Rusor

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Rusor is invoked with Altor by the pontiffs in a sacrifice to the earth deities Tellus and Tellumo.

S

Salacia

Salacia is an ancient goddess of salt water and guardian of the depths of the ocean.

Salus [Sabine god]

Salus was the Roman goddess of security, welfare, health, and prosperity for both the individual and the state.

Sancus, Semo, Sangus

Sancus, was a deity of fidelity (fides), honesty, and oaths in the religion of the ancient Romans.

Sator

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). The “sower” god.

Saturn [Sabine god] [Di selecti]

Saturnus is an ancient deity worshipped by the Romans, considered the founder of agriculture and civilization.

Scotus, Erebus

The god of darkness.

Securitas

Securitas was the goddess of security and stability.

Segesta

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Goddess who promotes the growth of the seedling.

Semonia

Semonia was the goddess of sowing in Roman mythology.

Sentinus or Sentia

Sentinus or Sentia is a birth and childhood deity. Sentia gives sentience or the powers of sense perception (sensus). Augustine calls him the sensificator, “creator of sentience.

Seia

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Goddess who guards the plant’s seed after it has been planted in the ground; also known as Fructesea, a compound of fructus, “produce, fruit”.

Septentrio

Septentrio is the god of the north wind.

Serritor

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who digs”.

Silvanus

Silvanus is the god of the forests and the countryside.

Sol, Sol Invictus [Sabine god] [Di selecti]

Sol is the personification of the Sun.

Somnus, Hypnos

Somnus is a Roman god equivalent to the Greek Hypnos. He is regarded as a peaceful and gentle deity who helps the people while sleeping.

Soranus

Soranus was an ancient italic deity.

Sors

Sors was a god of good fortune. 

Spes

Spes was regarded as the goddess of hope in early Roman religion.

Spiniensis

Spiniensis was the deity of thorns.

Stata Mater

Stata Mater  was a compital goddess who protected against fire.

Statina, Statinus, Statilina, Statilinus

Statina is a birth and childhood deity. She provides the child “straightness,” and the father held acknowledge his responsibility to raise it. Children may be left behind at the Columna Lactaria or the Temple of Pietas. Serious congenital abnormalities may cause newborns to drown or suffocate.

Sterquilinus

Sterquilinus was a deity of odor in Roman mythology.

Strenua

Strēnŭa was a deity of Sabine origin and a symbol of the new year, prosperity and good luck.

Subigus

Subigus, an ancient Roman god of birth, is the one who forces the bride to submit to her husband.

Suada, Suadela

Suadela was the goddess of persuasion in Roman mythology, especially in the areas of romance, seduction, and love.

Summanus [Sabine god]

In contrast to Jupiter, who was the god of diurnal (daytime) thunder, Summanus was the deity of nocturnal thunder.

Subruncinator

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who weeds”.

Subsolanus

Subsolanus is the god of the east wind.

Sulis Minerva

The Celtic deities Sul and Minerva were combined to form Sulis Minerva.

T

Talasius 

Talasius is a god of marriage in Roman mythology.

Terra Mater, Tellus [Di selecti]

Tellus Mater or Terra Mater (“Mother Earth”) is the personification of the Earth in ancient Roman religion and mythology.

Tellumo

Tellumo is the male counterpart of Terra Mater.

Tempestas

Tempestas is the goddess of storms or abrupt weather in ancient Roman mythology.

Terminus [Sabine god]

Terminus was the god who protected boundary markers.

Tiberinus

Tiberinus was the god of the Tiber River.

Tibertus

Tibertus was a river god, deity of the river Anio, a tributary of the Tiber.

Tranquillitas

The personification of serenity was Tranquillitas. Tranquillitas appears to be connected to Securitas and Annona, the Egyptian goddess of the corn harvest, suggesting an allusion to the tranquil security of the Roman Empire.

Tutelina

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). Tutelina  is a goddess who watches over the stored grain.

U

Ultio, Poena

Ultio, sometimes known as “Vengeance,” was a goddess of ancient Rome whose religion was linked to Mars.

V

Vacuna

Vacuna was an ancient Sabine goddess.

Vaginatus (Vaticanus)

Vaginatus is a birth and childhood deity. Vagitanus opens the newborn’s mouth for its first cry.

Vejovis, Vediovus [Sabine god]

Vejovis, sometimes known as Vēdiovis or Vejove, was an Etruscan-born Roman deity associated with Asclepius.

Venilia

Sea goddess Venilia or Venelia, consort of Neptune or Faunus.

Venti

Venti is a group of wind deities of the Roman religion, equivalent to the Greek Anemoi. Ptolomy’s world map listed 12 winds: Septentrio (N), Aquilo (NNE), Vulturnus (NE), Subsolanus (E), Eurus (SE), Euroauster (SSE), Austerulnotus (S), Euronotus (SSW), Affricus (SW), Ephirus (W), Eurus (NW), Circius (NNW).

Venus [Di selecti]

Venus is a Roman goddess of love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity, and victory.

Veritas

Veritas is the Goddess of Truth in Roman mythology.

Verminus

Verminus was the Roman deity who guarded livestock against illness in Roman mythology.

Vervactor

One of the twelve Ceres’ helper god (indigimenta). “He who ploughs”.

Vertumnus [Sabine god]

Vertumnus is the deity of gardens, fruit trees, and the changing of the seasons in Roman mythology.

Vesta [Di selecti]

In Roman mythology, Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family.

Vica Pota

Vica Pota was the elder version of Victoria but certainly not a personification of victory per se.

Victoria

Victoria was the personification of the goddess of triumph.

Viduus

God who separated the soul and body after death.

Virbius (Hippolytus of Athens)

Virbius is a character (Hippolytus of Athens) from Greek mythology transposed to Roman mythology.

Viriplaca

Viriplaca was “the goddess who soothes the anger of man” and was given to Juno as a last name, designating her as the bringer of harmony between married couples.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the deity of courage and military strength, the personification of Roman virtus (virtue, valor).

Vitumnus

Vitumnus endows the fetus with vita, the vital principle or power of life.

Volturnus [Minor flamens]

Volturnu was a god of the rivers.

Vulturnus

Vulturnus is the god of the northeast wind.

Voluptas

The goddess of “sensual pleasures”, daughter of Cupid and Psyche.

Volutina

Specialized agricultural god (indigimenta). The goddess Volutina is responsible for the formation of “envelopes” (involumenta) or leaf sheaths.

Vulcan [Sabine god] [Minor flamens] [Di selecti]

Vulcan is the Roman god of fire, including the fire of volcanoes, deserts, metalworking and the forge, earthly eruption and destruction .

Volumnus or Volumna

Volumnus or Volumna grants the child the will to do good.

Featured image: Joachim Wtewael – The Wedding of Cupid and Psyche


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