Sol, Sol Invictus, the god of the sun

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Sol, a deity in pre-Christian Roman religion, is the Sun’s personification.

For a long time, it was believed that Rome had two distinct, successive sun gods: The first, Sol Indiges (the deified sun), was supposed to have been insignificant and to have vanished entirely at a young age. The solar religion didn’t return until the late Roman Empire, according to academics, when the Syrian Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun) arrived in Rome, possibly influenced by the Mithraic mysteries. The idea that there were two different sun gods in Rome has been refuted in publications dating back to the mid-1990s. These publications highlight the wealth of evidence supporting the continuity of the Sol cult and the absence of any discernible differences between the “early” and “late” Roman sun gods. By the end of the republic, Apollo and Helios were already assimilated into Greek culture in Rome.

Related article: Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Rome

Featured image: Silver disc dedicated to Sol Invictus, 3rd century AD, found at Pessinus (Asia Minor), British Museum

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